Red pepper (Capsicum annuum), including the Solanaceae family and is one of the vegetables that have a lot of benefits, high economic value and has an attractive market prospects. Fruit than can be consumed fresh chili for seasoning mix can also be preserved for example in the form of pickles, sauces, chili powder and dried fruit.REQUIREMENTS GROW
Red chili fit cultivated, both in lowland and upland, wetland or upland at the altitude of 0-1000 m above sea level. Good soil for planting chili is structured crumb or loose, fertile, rich in organic matter, soil pH between 6-7. Soil water content is also noteworthy. It is associated with a growing pepper plants (field or moor). Pepper plants grown in paddy fields should be planted at the end of the rainy season, while in fields planted during the rainy season. With the selection of appropriate planting season, is expected at the time of plant growth, water content fields are not excessive and in dry land is still enough water for growing peppers.RAISING PLANT
1. Recommended varieties
Varieties that can be used for chili cultivation include Lembang-1, Tanjung-2, Hot Chilli, Hot Beauty, and so forth. Seed requirement of 250-350 g / ha.
Before sowing, the seeds were first soaked in warm water (50°C) or N Previcur solution (1 cc / l) for one hour. Seed spread evenly on nursery beds with a mixture of soil media and manure / compost (1:1), then covered with banana leaves for 2-3 days. Nursery beds are kept under shade / roof of screen / mesh / transparent plastic nursery then covered with a screen to prevent pest attacks. After the age of 7-8 days, the seedlings were moved into bumbunan banana leaf / plastic pots with the same media (soil and manure sterile). Watering is done every day. Seedlings ready to be planted in the field after the age of 4-5 weeks.3. Land Management
a. Dry land / moor
Land dug as deep as 30-40 cm to loose and made beds-beds with 1-1.2 m wide, 30 cm high and 30 cm spacing between beds. Planting hole made with a spacing (50-60 cm) x (40-50 cm) or 50 cm x 70 cm, so that there are 2 beds in each row of plants.b. Wetland
Hoe up soil loose and made beds-beds with a width of 1.5 m and between beds made trench 50 cm deep and 50 cm wide. Created planting holes with a spacing of 50 cm x 40 cm. When the soil pH is less than 5.5 performed using Kaptan liming / dolomite at a dose of 1.5 tonnes / ha at 3-4 weeks before planting (along with tillage distributed manner at ground level and mix evenly).4. Fertilization
a. For chili in monoculture planting in dry land
Given basic fertilizer in the form of a horse or cow manure as much as 20-40 tonnes / ha and fertilizers TSP 200-225 kg / ha was given before planting. Supplementary fertilizer such as Urea 100-150 kg / ha, ZA 300-400 kg / ha, and KCl 150-200 kg / ha was given 3 times at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after planting.b. For planting chillies are overlapping shifts with shallots
Shallots: horse or cow manure 10-20 tonnes / ha and 150-200 kg TSP / ha was given 7 days before planting, then Urea 150-200 kg / ha, ZK 400-500 kg / ha and 150-200 kg KCl / ha given at 7 and 25 days after planting, respectively ½ dose.
Red chili: horse or cow manure 10-15 tonnes / ha and 100-150 kg TSP / ha given a week after planting. Urea 100-150 kg / ha, ZA 300-400 kg / ha and KCl 100-150 kg / ha was given at the age of 4, 7 and 10 weeks after planting.c. For planting pepper intercropped with cabbage or tomatoes
Horse or cow manure 30-40 tonnes / ha and NPK 15:15:15 as much as 700 kg / ha was given a week before planting by way of spread and mix it to the ground. Given in the form of supplementary fertilizer NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer diluted (1.5-2 g / l of water), with a volume of 4000 l spray solution / ha. The fertilizer is given from the age of 6 weeks before planting and repeated every 10-15 days.5. The use of mulch
Mulch is used to retain moisture, soil microbial stability, reduce nutrient leaching by rain and reduce pests. Mulch can be straw thickness of 5 cm (10 tons / ha) in the dry season, which was given two weeks after planting or in the form of plastic mulch for dry season and the rainy season.6. Maintenance
Stitching done at least 1-2 weeks after planting seedlings to replace dead or diseased. Irrigation is given by way of dileb (flooded) or by flushing perlubang. Scarify the soil or fertilizer pendangiran performed in conjunction with a second or subsequent fertilization. Giving marker made to sustain crop establishment. Shoots growing under the main branch should be pruned.7. Pest Control (OPT)
Important pests that attack crops such as chili whitefly, thrips, aphids, armyworms, tomato fruit worm, fruit fly, antraknose, wilt disease, viral yellow, and so on. Pest control is done depends on the attacking pests. Some ways to do, among other things:
8. Harvest and Postharvest
- The use of maize border rows 4-6
- The use of natural enemies (predators: Menochilus sexmaculatus)
- The use of traps (yellow, methyl eugenol)
- The use of botanical pesticides
- The use of chemical pesticides as needed with the appropriate dosage instructions. Control with pesticides should be done with a really good selection of the type, dose, spray volume, application method, time interval and its application
Red peppers can be harvested the first time at the age of 70-75 days after planting in the lowlands and at the age of 4-5 months in the highlands, with a 3-7 day harvest interval. Fruit damaged caused by anthracnose fruit flies or preferably immediately destroyed. To be sold fresh fruit should be harvested ripe. Fruit that is sent to remote harvested ripe green. Dried fruits to be harvested when fully ripe.
Sorting is done to separate the red chilies healthy, normal shape and good with fruit quality is not good. Packaging chili to use traditional long-distance transport packaging should be given sufficient vent or use a mesh sack. When will be stored should be kept in a dry storage area, cool and ventilated enough.